• Malaria- causes, symptoms and homeopathic treatment

    The disease was known to Hippocrates (5th century BC) who recognized periodic fevers as quotidian, tertian and quartan. The name of malaria was given by an Italian in 1753, it is derived by two Italian words— malo (bad) and aria (air), this term was applied as the old belief that the disease was due to inhalation of poisonous emanations from marshy ground. In 188o the French army surgeon Alphonse Laveran became the first person to describe the malarial parasite and to recognize it as the cause of malaria. In 1897—98 the British physician Sir Ronald Ross proved that malaria is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes, and he described the entire life cycle of that parasite in the mosquito. In 1898 the Italian investigators Amico Bignami, Giovanni Battista Grassi, and Giuseppe Bastianelli first infected humans with malaria by mosquitoes, described the full development of the parasite in humans, and noted that human malaria is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes.

    What is malaria?

    Malaria is a Mosquito borne infection caused by hemoparasite of genus plasmodium characterized by periodical paroxysms of fever having chill, heat, and sweat stages, along with anaemia and splenornegaly.

    Causes of Malaria (Etiology)
    Distribution:
    – Widespread in tropics, subtropics.
    – Rare at altitudes above 2000-2500 meters.
    Season: Humid conditions, rainy weather. Infection begins in June/July and reaches it speak in October and even early part of November.
    Causative organism: Parasite of genus Plasmodium have 4 strains:
    • P. vivax.
    • P. ovale.
    • P. malariae.
    • P. falciparum.
    Source: Human case.
    Transmission: Bite of female anopheles mosquito, contaminated blood transfusion.
    Race: No race is immune to malaria.
    Age and sex: Young children more common victim than adults.
    Incubation period: 10-14 days.

    Types:
    Benign tertian malaria: Paroxysm after 48 hours, Caused by P. vivar and P. ovale
    Benign quartan malaria: Paroxysm after 72 hours, Caused by P. malaria.
    • Malignant malaria: Periodicity not marked, Caused by P. falciparum.
    Benign Tertian Malaria (Plasmodium Vivax and Ovale)
    Clinical Features
    Onset:
    Sudden.
    Prodrome (Subjective)
    – Lassitude, weakness.
    – Bodyache.
    – Nausea.
    – Anorexia.
    Stage of Invasion
    Typical malarial paroxysm consists of three stages:
    – Cold stage.
    – Hot stage.
    – Sweating stage.
    Paroxysm:
    • Chill stage:
    – Duration: half to one hour.
    – Patient feels intense chill.
    – Surely begins to vigorous shivering.
    – Chattering of teeth.
    – Skin cold.
    – Patient wants to cover with warm clothes.
    – Children may develop convulsions in this stage.
    – Pulse full and rapid.
    – Temperature rises gradually.
    • Heat stage:
    Duration: three to four hours.
    – Temperature rises.
    – Headache is marked.

    – Eyes are congested.
    – Intense heat.
    – Uncovers himself.
    – Nausea.
    – Vomiting.
    – Intense thirst.
    – Pain in upper abdomen.
    On examination (Objective)
    – Temperature: 40 0C4i OC.
    – Respiration: fast.
    – Pulse: rapid.
    – Flushed face.
    – Congested eyes.
    – Dry, warm skin.
    • Sweat stage:
    Duration: two to four hours.
    – Profuse, drenching perspiration.
    – Fever drops.
    – Patient feels better.
    On examination:
    – Anaemia: mild.
    – Jaundice: may be present.
    – Liver: Enlarged, soft and tender.
    – Spleen: Palpable, soft and tender.

    General Appearance:

    • Pallor and anaemia present.
    • Jaundice; often seen in early stage (Marked in malignant malaria).
    • Herpes labialis; often present (commonly with benign tertian malaria).
    • Tongue: coated with brownish white fur.
    • Spleen: enlarged, palpable, soft and tender (acute febrile episode). Pain is due to stretching of capsule by intense congestion. In chronic malaria, spleen is moderate to grossly enlarged and hard.
    • Liver: silghtly enlarged and tender during febrile paroxysm. With repeated attacks; moderately enlarged and firm.
    • CVS: Pulse is rapid in proportion to the height of temperature. With malignant tertian, pulse may show relative bradycardia.
    • Urine: copious and light colored in the cold stage. Scanty and high colored in hot stage. An increased excretion of urobiin occurs during the attack. Slight albuminuria is common during febrile stage.

    Complication: Chronic relapsing malaria.
    Investigations
    Blood:

    • Hb%: Low.
    • TLC: Leucocytosis.
    • DLC: Increased lymphocytes, monocytes.
    • Thick peripheral smear (during paroxysm):
    • Malarial parasite present.

    Urinalysis: Increase in urobilinogen.
    Prognosis : Good with proper treatment.
    General Management
    – Rest till paroxysm subsides.
    – Bland, nutritive, easily digestible diet.
    – Plenty of fluids.
    – Cover with blankets during chill stage.
    – Cold sponging during heat stage.
    Prophylactic Measures
    • Use:
    – Mosquito repellants.
    – Protective clothing.
    – Bed nets.
    • Environmental sanitation.
    • Intermittent drying of water stores.

     

    Malaria Treatment

    Homeopathic Treatment for Malaria

    Alstonia Scholaris: Malarial fever with painless diarrhoea and feeble digestion. It is most suitable after exhaustive fever. Chronic intermittent fever suppressed by quinine.

    Aranea Diadema: Malarial cachexia. Paroxysm; at precisely same hour, every day, or every other day. Chill stage; long lasting, coldness with pain in long bones. Heat and sweat stage not characteristic. Headache and chill both relieved by smoking. Tongue; slightly coated.

    Arsenicum Album: Chronic malaria; when three stages are not distinct, after over treatment with quinine.
    Rapid emaciation, with excessive exhaustion after least exertion. Malarial cachexia, with rapid sinking. Prodrome; sleepiness, yawning and stretching, malaise and debility. Chill stage; mingling of heat and chilliness, all ameliorated by external warmth. Great thirst; little often, mall quantity at small interval. Heat stage; fever is intense, long lasting, dry burning, with inclination to uncover and insatiable thirst. Burning heat as if hot water running through blood vessels. Restlessness. Sweat stage; not very distinct, yet subject is cold and clammy. Thirst for large quantities of water, with vomiting after drinking. Tongue; furred sides, with red streak down the middle, brown. Metallic taste. Pulse; weak, small, and frequent. Urine; scanty, burning. Associated with; gradual loss of weight, face pale, sunken, clay-coloured, bloated. Enlarged liver and spleen. Aggravation after midnight, wet weather. Better; from heat in general.

    Capsicum: Quotidian type of intermittent fever. Periodicity strongly marked 5 to 6 P.M. or 10 a.m. Prodrome; thirst before chill stage. Chill stage; chill with great thirst, drinking causes shivering. Chill begins between the shoulders at back, must have something hot at the back. Chill is relieved by motion. Heat and sweat stage; both coincide. Heat and sweat simultaneously. Face alternately pale and red. Heat of the ears, and hot red tip of the nose with cold hands and feet. Heat and sweat is relieved by motion. Painful enlargement of spleen. Sometimes associated with herpes labialis.

    Cedron: It is useful in tropical, damp, warm, marshy areas. Intermittent fever during pregnancy. Quotidian/tertian malaria. Marked periodicity. Prodrome; at noon, preceding feverish paroxysm, depresed spirits, dullness of senses, and pressive headache. Chill stage; chill more towards evening, with thirst. Followed by severe frontal headache extending into orbital region, palpitation, hurried respiration. General coldness; shivering in back, ice cold feet which are renewed by every movement. Heat stage; with itching redness of eyes and numbness. With thirst for warm drinks and passage of large quantities of pale urine. Desire for sleep as the heat stage passes off. Sweat stage; with thirst followed by profuse perspiration. Worse; movement and before storm. Better; warm drinks and warm room.

    China Officinalis (tertian, quartan, chronic): Characteristic anaemia and cachexia. Swelling of hypochondria; enlargement of spleen profuse sweat and great debility. Symptoms of generalised dropsy, bloated abdomen with entire loss of appetite.

    Paroxysm: not characteristic; may begin at any time of the day, generally toward mid-day, never at night. Prodrome; great thirst, canine hunger, nausea, headache, debility, palpitation of the heart; with anxiety, general feeling of illness. Restless sleep at night before the paroxysm. Chill stage; thirst ceases as soon as chill begins. General shaking chill over whole body increased by every sip of drink. Violent internal chills with ice-cold hands and feet, and congestion of blood to the head and pain in the hepatic region. Heat stage; without thirst. General heat with distended veins, congested headache, desires to uncover, but chilly when uncovered. Sensation of heat in abdomen, as of hot water running down. Long lasting heat, with sleep. If the patient eats in this stage; sleepy after eating. On least movement an unpleasant sensation of heat in the head and stomach. Sweat stage; with great thirst. Long lasting, profuse and debilitating sweat. The patient sweat profusely, especially on the back and neck, when he sleeps.

    Chininum Arsenicosum: Prodrome: general weariness and prostration; headache, yawning and stretching. Chill stage; always in forenoon, not at regular hour. Sometimes once in every day; ending in perspiration or without it. Heat stage; without thirst; heat stage towards midnight. Heat is so severe that the patient throws off coverings and open the window. Pulse is full and strong. Sweat stage is absent. Abdomen is bloated and painful, left hypochondriac region is enlarged and tender.

    Chininum Suiphuricum (tertian, quartan, chronic): Prodrome; premonitory symptoms are wanting. Chill stage; with thirst. Decided shaking chill at 3 p.m. Violent chill with trembling in the limbs, so that patient could scarcely walk. Dorsal vertebrae painful on pressure. Paleness of face; lips and nails are blue. Painful swelling of various veins during a chill. Heat stage; with excessive thirst. Heat stage is very violent with hot, dry skin, dry mouth and fauces, flushed face and delirium. Sweat stage; with great thirst. Sweat breaks out over whole body from time to time. Sweat during the morning sleep, so profuse that the bed was soaked with it. Tongue; flabby, white or yellow coated in the center, pale on the margins. Bitter taste. Pulse; large and full, during chill and heat stage, weak and trembling at close of paroxysm. Other features; great thirst during the apyrexial stage. Nightly diarrhoea. Canine hunger. Ringing and burning in the ears, accompanied with vertigo. Troublesome hiccough at any stage. Urine; brick-dust sediments, urates in large quantities, albuminuria, some times complicated with interstitial nephritis. Fear of misfortune; disaster, evil. Indolence on waking in morning. Anxiety about the future.

    Crotalus Horridus (Falciparum malaria): Black water fever. Great prostration of vital force. Abdomen is distended, hot and tender. Intolerance of clothing around the waist Sweat cold, clammy, and bloody. Pulse; soft, weak, slow and is scarcely felt. Tongue; fiery red, smooth, polished and intensely swollen. Stool and vomitus; dark coffee ground. Petechiae. Haemorrhages; passive, dark and unclotted blood. Sadness. Aversion to members of family. Sensitive to certain persons. Muttering delirium, talking to himself. Delusion of frightful animals; falling out of bed, surrounded by enemies. Weakness of memory for names, persons and places. Mistakes in speaking and writing.

    Eupatorium Perfoliatum (tertian, double tertian): Prodrome: insatiable thirst, but drinking causes nausea and vomiting, and hasten the chill. Thirst sometimes one or three hours before the chill; patient knows the chill is coming because he cannot drink enough. Chill stage; paroxysm 7 to 9 a.m, double periodicity. One day in morning next day in evening. With intense thirst, but drinking water increases the nausea and causes bitter vomiting. Shivering with moaning which is increased by motion. Chill begins in the back, between shoulders which goes lower down, not relieved by heat. Heat stage; thirstless during heat stage. Great weakness with increase in bone pain. Bursting headache, cannot raise the head while fever lasts; cheeks are red. Internal soreness from head to foot, all over the body. Sleep with moaning, much shivering even during heat. Fever in afternoon, preceeded by thirst. Early in the morning, but no chill; attended by fatiguing cough and not followed by perspiration. Sweat stage; generally scanty, or absent altogether, in which the headache continues for several hours after fever has gone. When there is much perspiration; it brings relief of all pains except headache, which is increased. Coldness during nocturnal sweat. Perspiration at night giving no relief. When chill

    is severe, sweat is light or wanting and vice versa. Tongue; coated white or yellow, pale; food tasteless, bitter. Desire for ice cream. Canine hunger after quinine. Commissure of lips cracked.

    Ferrum Arsenicosum (chronic): Enlarged liver and spleen with high fever of a continued type, during fever the face is flushed and sweaty, but during the intermission the face is pallid. Disinclination to work, even to leave his bed, constipation, or, sometimes, colliquative diarrhoea, the stools consisting of undigested matter and mucus, no thirst during any stage of the fever, heat intense and prolonged with slight burning of the whole body, emaciation, and debility.

    Helianthus (chronic): Most suitable in the old cases of intermittent fever. Coryza, catarrh, nasal haemorrhage and thick scabs in nose.

    Natrum Muriaticum (chronic): Chronic intermittent fever. Marked periodicity especially to a.m. to n a.m. Chill begins in the fingers, toes and back. Coldness of the body. Green bilious vomiting. Heat stage; fever with severe throbbing, pulsating, hammering headache and intense thirst. Sweat stage; with relief of all the sufferings. Other features; tongue is mapped with red insular patches. Craves for salt. Patient is emaciated, more noticed mainly on neck region, weak. Loosing flesh while living well. Lips dry, sore, cracked and ulcerated

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