• RENAL CALCULI (kidney Stone)

    Formation of stone in any part of urinary tract.

    A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi.

    The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis. Having stones at any location in the urinary tract is referred to as urolithiasis, and the term ureterolithiasis is used to refer to stones located in the ureters.


    Renal calculus

    • Pain in flank.
    • Dull aching.
    • Pain worse on: Movement, Changing position, Walking upstairs.
    • Haematuria

    – Tenderness of renal angle.
    Ureteric calculus

    – Onset: sudden.
    – Sharp, excruciating.
    – Radiates from loin to groin.
    – Patient draws up his knees and rolls.
    – Vomiting.
    – Strangury.
    – Haematuria.
    – Restlessness.
    – Pallor.
    – Profuse sweating.
    – Pulse: fast.
    – Rigidity of lateral abdomiiial muscles.
    – Percussion over kidney produces sharp stab of pain.
    Vesical calculus
    – Frequent unsatisfactory urination.
    – Pain at end of micturition.
    – Worse during exertion, jolting movements.
    – Better by lying.
    – Radiates to tip of penis.
    – Interruption of urinary stream (stone blocking internal meatus).
    . Better by change of posture.
    – Haematuria.
    – Tenderness over suprapubic region may be present.
    Other symptoms can include:

    • Abnormal urine color
    • Blood in the urine
    • Chills
    • Fever
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Decrease or loss of function in the affected kidney
    • Kidney damage, scarring
    • Obstruction of the ureter (acute unilateral obstructive uropathy)
    • Recurrence of stones


    • Idiopathic.
    • Concentrated urine: Hot climate, Decreased fluid intake, Chronic diarrhoea.
    • Urinary stasis: Urinary tract obstruction, Prolonged recumbency.
    • Recurrent urinary tract infection.
    • Polycystic kidney disease.
    • Vitamin A deficiency.
    • Foreign body.
    • Hypercalcaemia: Hyperparathyroidism, Vitamin D toxicity, Excessive intake of calcium, e.g. milk, cheese, eggs.
    • Hyperoxaluria: Excessive intake of oxalate, e.g. tomato, raddish, spinach, strawberry, tea, chocolate, cola drinks, Crohn’s disease.
    • Hyperuricemia: Gout, Myeloproliferative disorders, Excessive intake of purine rich foods, e.g. red meat, fish.
    • Age: peak incidence between 30-50 years.
    • Sex: common in males.
    • Chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension) are also associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones.
    • Hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine), another inherited condition, causes stones in more than half of cases. In this condition, too much calcium is absorbed from food and excreted into the urine, where it may form calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate stones.
    • Gout results in chronically increased amount of uric acid in the blood and urine and can lead to the formation of uric acid stones.
    • Other conditions associated with an increased risk of kidney stones include hyperparathyroidism, kidney diseases such as renal tubular acidosis, and other inherited metabolic conditions, including cystinuria and hyperoxaluria.
    • People with inflammatory bowel disease are also more likely to develop kidney stones.
    • Some medications also raise the risk of kidney stones. These medications include some diuretics, calcium-containing antacids, and the protease inhibitor indinavir (Crixivan), a drug used to treat HIV infection.
    • Those who have undergone intestinal bypass or ostomy surgery are also at increased risk for kidney stones.
    • Dietary factors and practices may increase the risk of stone formation in susceptible individuals. In particular, inadequate fluid intake predisposes to dehydration, which is a major risk factor for stone formation. Other dietary practices that may increase an individual’s risk of forming kidney stones include a high intake of animal protein, a high-salt diet, excessive sugar consumption, excessive vitamin D supplementation, and possible excessive intake of oxalate-containing foods such as spinach. Interestingly, low levels of dietary calcium intake may alter the calcium-oxalate balance and result in the increased excretion of oxalate and a propensity to form oxalate stones.


    • Impaction and obstruction.
    • Urinary tract Infection.
    • Stricture of ureter.
    • Anuria (bilateral renal/ureteric calculi).

    Risk for RENAL CALCULI (kidney Stones)?

    Anyone may develop a kidney stone, but people with certain diseases and conditions (see below) or those who are taking certain medications are more susceptible to their development. Urinary tract stones are more common in men than in women. It is estimated that about 12% of men and 7% of women in the U.S. will develop stones in the urinary tract at some point in their lives. About 20 million people seek medical care each year because of kidney stones. Most urinary stones develop in people 20-49 years of age, and those who are prone to multiple attacks of kidney stones usually develop their first stones during the second or third decade of life. People who have already had more than one kidney stone are prone to developing further stones.

    In residents of industrialized countries, kidney stones are more common than stones in the bladder. The opposite is true for residents of developing areas of the world, where bladder stones are the most common. This difference is believed to be related to dietary factors. People who live in the southern or southwestern regions of the U.S. have a higher rate of kidney stone formation than those living in other areas. Over the last few decades, the percentage of people with kidney stones in the U.S. has been increasing; the reason for this is not well understood.

    A family history of kidney stones is also a risk factor for developing kidney stones. Kidney stones are more common in Asians and Caucasians than in Native Americans, Africans, or African Americans.

    Uric acid kidney stones are more common in people with chronically elevated uric acid levels in their blood (hyperuricemia).

    A small number of pregnant women (about one out of every 1,500-3,000 pregnancies) develop kidney stones, and there is some evidence that pregnancy-related changes may increase the risk of stone formation. Factors that may contribute to stone formation during pregnancy include a slowing of the passage of urine due to increased progesterone levels and diminished fluid intake due to a decreasing bladder capacity from the enlarging uterus. Healthy pregnant women also have a mild increase in their urinary calcium excretion. However, it remains unclear whether the changes of pregnancy are directly responsible for kidney stone formation or if these women have another underlying factor that predisposes them to kidney stone formation.


    – Macroscopic for blood, pus, sediments.
    – Chemical for
    . Presence of blood, albumin.
    • 24 hour urinary calcium, phosphate, urate.
    – Microscopic for RBC’s, pus cells.
    X-Ray KUB: For radio-opaque calculi.
    CT scan: For non-opaque calculi.
    USG: Calculi >1 cm cast a specific shadow.
    Excretory urography to
    – Confirm that opacity is intra-renal.
    – Determine exact location.
    – Analyze renal function.
    – Detect obstruction.

    Blood biochemistry
    – Serum calcium.
    – Serum uric acid.

    • Abdominal CT scan
    • Abdominal/kidney MRI
    • Abdominal x-rays
    • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    • Kidney ultrasound
    • Retrograde pyelogram

    How can we prevent kidney stones?

    Rather than having to undergo treatment, it is best to avoid kidney stones in the first place when possible. It can be especially helpful to drink more water, since low fluid intake and dehydration are major risk factors for kidney stone formation.

    Depending on the cause of the kidney stones and an individual’s medical history, dietary changes or medications are sometimes recommended to decrease the likelihood of developing further kidney stones. If one has passed a stone, it can be particularly helpful to have it analyzed in a laboratory to determine the precise type of stone so specific prevention measures can be considered.

    People who have a tendency to form calcium oxalate kidney stones may be advised to limit their consumption of foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard, beets, wheat germ, and peanuts.

    – Calculi < 5 mm are passed spontaneously.
    – Good, if infection and obstruction are pre vented.
    – Recurrences are common.

    – Predominant sycotic disorder.

    – To remove stone.
    – To treat cause.
    – To prevent Complications.
    – To prevent recurrence.

    – Plenty of fluids (more than 4 litres/24 hours).
    – Control and treatment of infection.
    – Diet restriction according to type of stone:
    If stone is of uric acid and urates, eliminate.
    – Meat and meat products, shellfish and dais, whole grain cereals, oat meal, dried peas and beans, spinach.
    If stone of oxalate, eliminate
    – Green plantain, spinach, sweet potato, colocasia roots [arvi], beet, currants, figs, almonds, cashewnuts, grapes.
    – Large stones may require surgical removal.


    – Berberis Vulgaris: Renal Stones.
    – Hydrangea: Left Ureteric Calculus.
    – Lycopodium: Lithic Cliathesis.
    – Nux Vomica: Ineffectual Urging.
    – Ocimum Canum: Uric Acid Diathesis.
    – Pareira Brava: Vesical Calculus.
    – Sarsaparilla: Right Ureteric Calculus.
    – Solidago: Homoeopathic Cathetar.
    – Uva Ursi: Vesical Calculus, Cystitis.
    – Vesicaria: Cystitis with Irritable Bladder.
    Following medicines showed improvement in haematuria, burning micturition and episodes of pain:
    Berberis Vulgaris.

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    13 thoughts on “RENAL CALCULI (kidney Stone)

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    • showtime says:

      Kidney stone formation is pmaoonclmce and the stones are so little that they pass out with the piss without any barrier. if you’re susceptible to calcium stones, you might chat about the matter with your GP, who may suggest that you to lower your calcium intake. If your kidneys have uric acid stones, then reducing your beef, birds and fish intake will certainly help. Folks , who get struvite stones, might be given antibiotics to help in removing bacterial infection.

      • Tais says:

        Katie B,You are very likely well aware of the finoowllg details, but in case there is something that you are not aware of, please read on. Your kidneys are responsible for removing excess fluid from your body and filtering out unneeded electrolytes and wastes from your blood, resulting in the production of urine. Kidney stones form when the minerals and acid salts in your urine crystallize, stick together, and solidify into a mass. This happens when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances, such as calcium and uric acid, than the available fluid can dilute. This can happen when urine is highly acid or highly alkaline. The conditions allowing kidney stones to form are created by problems in the way your body absorbs and eliminates calcium and other substances. Sometimes the underlying cause is a metabolic disorder or kidney disease. Certain drugs can also promote kidney stones, such as Lasix (furosemide), Topomax (topiramate), and Xenical, among others. Many times, it is a combination of factors that create an environment favorable to stone formation. Most kidney stones contain crystals of multiple types. However, usually one type predominates, and determining the type helps the doctor/laboratory identify the underlying cause:1. Calcium stones. The most common type (four out of five cases)is usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is found in some fruits and vegetables, but your liver produces most of your oxalate. If you are found to have oxalate stones, your doctor may recommend avoiding foods rich in oxalates, such as dark green vegetables, nuts and chocolate. 2. Struvite stones: Found more often in women, these are almost always the result of urinary tract infections. 3. Uric acid stones. These are a byproduct of protein metabolism.They’re commonly seen with gout,and may result from certain genetic factors and disorders of your blood-producing tissues. 4. Cystine stones. Represent a very small percentage of kidney stones.These are the result of a hereditary disorder that causes your kidneys to excrete massive amounts of certain amino acids (cystinuria). If you are menstruating and if the stone is causing haemorrhaging, then the blood loss may well show slightly greater, depending on the amount of haemorrhaging that is taking place. However, you should bear in mind that the total amount of blood lost due to the normal monthly period is usually less than 80ml. The amount of blood loss due to your kidney stone is unlikely to be as great as this under “normal” circumstances.ALL ANSWERS SHOULD BE THOROUGHLY RESEARCHED, IN ANY FORUM AND ESPECIALLY IN THIS ONE. MANY ANSWERS ARE FLAWED.It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms.The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.Hope this helpsmatador 89

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      • Andrea says:

        Hi SamHere is some ideas on how to heal the issue and maintain good heltah. I explain what sugar does below.CauseKidney stones are more common during the summer, possibly due to concentrated urine caused by increased sweating and insufficient fluid intake. In general, mild chronic dehydration can play a role in the development of kidney stones. Chronic stress can also play a role.Kidney stones that are high in calcium may be a signal of hyperparathyroidism (excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone). In serious cases of kidney stones an ultrasound that fractionalizes and breaks down the stones may be advised. See your medical doctor for more information about this. Natural CuresAromatherapy: Hyssop and juniper essential oils can be helpful. Ayurveda: Cumin, coriander, and fennel tea. Drink one cup three times a day. Diet: Diet alone cannot get rid of the stones. Higher-than-normal levels of oxalate related to a diet high in oxalic containing foods, such as rhubarb, spinach, leafy vegetables, and coffee, can promote kidney stone formation. High levels of dietary refined carbohydrates can also cause kidney stones. Sugar stimulates the pancreas to release insulin, causing increased calcium excretion through the urine. Other dietary factors that cause increased calcium excretion in the urine and promote stone formation are increased intakes of coffee, colas, acid-forming diets (such as high protein and grains), insufficient water intake, and excessive salt consumption. Soft drinks containing phosphoric acid can also encourage the formation of kidney stones and should be completely eliminated. The most important dietary actions are to increase your intake of pure filtered water, fiber, and green vegetables, and reduce refined sugar consumption. Foods that are helpful in decreasing kidney stone formation include cranberries, black cherries, rice bran, kombucha tea. In addition to avoiding sugar, also avoid or reduce your intake of salt, dairy products, caffeine, alcohol, refined carbohydrates, nuts, chocolate, pepper, and animal proteins. Herbs: Combine the tinctures of gravel root, cornsilk, wild yam, and blackhaw in equal parts and take one teaspoon of this mixture three times a day. Or drink one cup of an infusion of nettle three times a day. Other useful herbs include uva ursi, horsetail, and dandelion root. Homeopathy: Berberis, and Sarsaparilla are both useful homeopathic remedies. Hydrotherapy: Hydrotherapy is the application of water, ice, steam and hot and cold temperatures to maintain and restore heltah. Treatments include full body immersion, steam baths, saunas, sitz baths, colonic irrigation and the application of hot and/or cold compresses. Hydrotherapy is effective for treating a wide range of conditions and can easily be used in the home as part of a self-care program. Many Naturopathic Physicians, Physical Therapists and Day Spas use Hydrotherapy as part of treatment. I suggest several at-home hydrotherapy treatments. Juice Therapy: The following juices can help stimulate the overall heltah of the urinary tract and potentially flush out the stones: lemon juice; carrot, beet, and cucumber juice with a dash of garlic and/or horseradish; and/or cranberry and watermelon juice.Nutritional Supplementation: Helpful nutrients include: magnesium, vitamin B6, vitamin C (keep your total daily intake below 6 grams to avoid increasing oxalate formation), vitamin A, proteolytic enzymes (away from meals), raw kidney glandulars, fat-soluble chlorophyll, lipoic acid, and the amino acids glutamic acid, lysine, and methionine.Alternative Professional CareIf your symptoms persist despite the above measures, seek the help of a qualified heltah professional. The following professional care therapies have all been shown to be useful for treating kidney stones: Acupuncture, Ayurveda, Detoxification Therapy, Reflexology, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Ultrasound.Best of heltah to you

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